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[Explained] What is 5g Technology?

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Written by Iqra End

Well with every network generation we have got faster speeds and lots of functionalities, Well 1G gave us cellular connectivity, 2G gave us the ability to text 3G brought us online and 4G just had a blast! and the game isn’t stopping here! and it’s time now for 5G. The next Generation of wireless and in this video i am going to tell you about.

What is 5G? How it works? and What all you need to understand about this new technology.

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Well imagine downloading a movie in just under 5 seconds or operating real time from USA to India many automated cars or IOT devices lag free gaming and this is just 1% of 5G for you. Guys just imagine what more can 5G do now before telling you all about 5G, i would like to give you all an insight about how network works.

Well till date all the network devices make use of frequency less than 6 GHz but over time due to increase in the users and devices this radio frequency spectrum is saturated means the frequency spectrum is packed due to which the speed are getting slower as this frequency spectrum can carry only a certain amount of data which limit is already saturated.

This is why we need a solution and 5G is going to give that because 5G is based on a millimeter wave technology in which the frequencies more than 6 GHz up to 300 GHz can be used. So this millimeter wave frequency is empty till date and if we are able to use this frequency too, then traffic will be less, the cars (data packets) will run faster and network wont be like Mumbai *traffic* this means we can move out of the house daily even on Monday (traffic analogy) and surf the internet. So the use of these millimeter waves is the first technology that is going to be used in 5G but! there is a problem.

Millimeter waves cannot travel longer distances as compared to the radio frequency waves which is being used till date and the millimeter waves cannot go through the obstacles this means that these millimeter waves cannot go through buildings, and they tend to get absorbed by the trees and the rain so to solve this problem the second 5G technology which has been made available is the Small cell Network.

Well usually the network towers transmit signals in a large area but as we know mm waves cannot travel longer distances and they cannot go past the obstacles so as a solution to this, rather than having a single big tower there will be large no. of small cell base stations which will reflect these signals around the obstacles and reach us and our device will automatically connect to the nearest base stations.

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The third 5G technology is called massive MIMO and MIMO means multiple input multiple output well now a days, the 4G base stations have a dozen number of ports which handle the cellular traffic. But since 5G is much faster, we will need more number of these ports so the 5G base stations will have a hundreds of ports rather than a few which will easily handle this fast cellular traffic and increasing the number of ports will increase the data handling capacity of these ports by 20 times. But these have their own set of problem if there are hundred of port in a small space then there will be a lot of interference between the signals.

They transmit and to solve this problem there is 4th technology or the 4th 5G technology called as the beam formation well to explain beam forming, ill use a simple analogy beam forming is just like a sniper means rather than exploding everyone like a sniper just targets 1 person at a time these base stations will basically send a focused beam of data towards the specified user at a specific time means rather than transmitting signal in all direction the base station will transmit a single beam towards a single person this will basically avoid the interference which was there in between the ports and the ports on the base station can handle more no. of input and output at the same time now its time for the 5G technology no. 5

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Which is called full duplex now what does it do?

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Well if you have ever used a walkie talkie you may be knowing that only one can speak at once and to listen to other person one has to wait after saying something so basically the cell towers and the base stations do the same. They either receive or transmit in the given time due to this the base stations cannot receive or transmit at the same time and thus time required of the process is more so this 5th 5G technology is based on the concept called the reciprocity.

And reciprocity basically means the radio wave travelling on a particular frequency can travel in both forward and reverse direction for example lets consider a train which is full of data and the track on which it is travelling is a particular frequency, consider 1GHz now on this track.

If the train is travelling and there is another train incoming so there is going to be an interference and if there is interference. There will be loss of data due to this the data connectivity is very slow as at a moment data is either transmitted or received and to tackle this issue the researchers have been working on silicon transistors.

Which are capable of high speed switches so that both the incoming and outgoing signals can be provided with a temporary route to go around each other at the same time this will allow input and output to occur at the same time. So these were the 5 basic technologies which 5G is going to use but the biggest problem 5G is facing is that to setup 5G a whole new infrastructure is required as the 2G or the 3G were making progress to move from 2G to 3G and 3G to 4G.

The network operators just needed to upgrade the existing cell towers but to bring in 5G, the cellular network companies they will have to build new cell towers and build up new infrastructure to support 5G and due to all these reasons 5G cannot be explained properly yet as it is still evolving and there is a possibility that more new technologies can come up.

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